Graham Kendall
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Professor Graham Kendall

Professor Graham Kendall is the Provost and CEO of The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus (UNMC). He is also a Pro-Vice Chancellor of the University of Nottingham.

He is a Director of MyResearch Sdn Bhd, Crops for the Future Sdn Bhd. and Nottingham Green Technologies Sdn Bhd. He is a Fellow of the British Computer Society (FBCS) and a Fellow of the Operational Research Society (FORS).

He has published over 230 peer reviewed papers. He is an Associate Editor of 10 journals and the Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Transactions of Computational Intelligence and AI in Games.

News

Can ants play chess? Yes they can!
http://bit.ly/1yW3UhX
I am a member of the Automated Scheduling, Optimisation and Planning Research Group
http://bit.ly/eIQ5XC

Latest Blog Post

Snooker: Celebrating 40 years at the Crucible

Random Blog Post

Scheduling Football Fixtures

Publication(s)

Evaluating decision-making units under uncertainty using fuzzy multi-objective nonlinear programming
http://bit.ly/2k79ATE
Automatic Design of Hyper-heuristic Framework with Gene Expression Programming for Combinatorial Optimization problems
http://bit.ly/1L6OJ8g
Evidence and belief in regulatory decisions Incorporating expected utility into decision modelling
http://bit.ly/1iaJTKT
A learning-guided multi-objective evolutionary algorithm for constrained portfolio optimization
http://bit.ly/1wqQplE

Graham Kendall: Details of Requested Publication


Citation

Kendall, G; McCollum, B; Cruz, F; McMullan, P and While, L Scheduling English Football Fixtures: Consideration of Two Conflicting Objectives. In Hybrid Metaheuristics, pages 369-385, Springer, Studies in Computational Intelligence 434, 2013.

This book chapter is part of the book Hybrid Metaheuristics


Abstract

The English Premier League is one of the most high profile, and successful, football (soccer in the USA) leagues in the world. It comprises 20 teams which have to play each other both home and away (i.e. a double round robin tournament), resulting in 380 fixtures that have to be scheduled. The other three main divisions in England (the Championship, League One and League Two) each have 24 teams, resulting in 552 fixtures having to be scheduled for each division. Therefore, for the four main divisions in England 2036 fixtures have to be scheduled every season. The divisions operate a system of promotion and relegation such that the teams in each division changes each year so it is not possible to simply use the same schedule every time. Of particular interest are the schedules that need to be generated for the Christmas/ New Year period. At this time of the year it is a requirement that every team plays two fixtures, one on Boxing Day (26th December) and one on New Years Day (1st January). Whilst scheduling these two sets of fixtures the overriding aim is to minimise the total distance that has to be travelled by the supporters. An analysis of the fixtures that were actually used, and also following discussions with the football authorities, confirm that this is a real world requirement and that the distances travelled by the supporters are the minimum when compared against other fixtures when all teams play. In addition, there are various other constraints that have to be respected, which are described in sections 3 and 4. The problem we address in this chapter is to attempt to minimise two competing objectives to ascertain if there is a good trade off between them. The objectives we minimise are the distances travelled by the supporters and the number of pair clashes. Pairing matches two (or more) teams and dictates that these clubs should not play at home on the same day. If they do, this is termed a pair clash. In fact, a certain number of pair clashes are allowed. The exact number is taken from the number that were present in the published fixtures for a given season. Importantly, paired teams cannot play each other on the two days in question. This is treated as a hard constraint. It is this constraint that causes a problem. If we allow Liverpool and Everton (for example) to play each other, one set of supporters would only travel four miles. If these teams are paired (as they are) then they cannot play each other so the distances are likely to increase as either Liverpool or Everton would have to travel more than four miles. As pair clashes usually involve teams which are geographically close this gives rise to the conflicting objectives. In an initial study of the problem considered the 2003-2004 football season, suggesting that it may be possible to minimise both of these competing objectives but still produce results which are acceptable to both the supporters (who are interested in minimising the amount they travel) and the police (who are interested in having fewer pair clashes). In this chapter, we carry out a more in depth study by considering more seasons and carrying out statistical analysis of the results in order to draw stronger conclusions.


pdf

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doi

The doi for this publication is 10.1007/978-3-642-30671-6_14 You can link directly to the original paper, via the doi, from here

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The URL is only provided if there is additional information that might be useful. For example, where the entry is a book chapter, the URL might link to the book itself.


Bibtex

@INBOOK{kmcmw2013, chapter = {Hybrid Metaheuristics},
pages = {369--385},
title = {Scheduling English Football Fixtures: Consideration of Two Conflicting Objectives},
publisher = {Springer},
year = {2013},
editor = {E-G. Talbi},
author = {G. Kendall and B. McCollum and F. Cruz and P. McMullan and L. While},
volume = {434},
series = {Studies in Computational Intelligence},
note = {This book chapter is part of the book Hybrid Metaheuristics},
abstract = {The English Premier League is one of the most high profile, and successful, football (soccer in the USA) leagues in the world. It comprises 20 teams which have to play each other both home and away (i.e. a double round robin tournament), resulting in 380 fixtures that have to be scheduled. The other three main divisions in England (the Championship, League One and League Two) each have 24 teams, resulting in 552 fixtures having to be scheduled for each division. Therefore, for the four main divisions in England 2036 fixtures have to be scheduled every season. The divisions operate a system of promotion and relegation such that the teams in each division changes each year so it is not possible to simply use the same schedule every time. Of particular interest are the schedules that need to be generated for the Christmas/ New Year period. At this time of the year it is a requirement that every team plays two fixtures, one on Boxing Day (26th December) and one on New Years Day (1st January). Whilst scheduling these two sets of fixtures the overriding aim is to minimise the total distance that has to be travelled by the supporters. An analysis of the fixtures that were actually used, and also following discussions with the football authorities, confirm that this is a real world requirement and that the distances travelled by the supporters are the minimum when compared against other fixtures when all teams play. In addition, there are various other constraints that have to be respected, which are described in sections 3 and 4. The problem we address in this chapter is to attempt to minimise two competing objectives to ascertain if there is a good trade off between them. The objectives we minimise are the distances travelled by the supporters and the number of pair clashes. Pairing matches two (or more) teams and dictates that these clubs should not play at home on the same day. If they do, this is termed a pair clash. In fact, a certain number of pair clashes are allowed. The exact number is taken from the number that were present in the published fixtures for a given season. Importantly, paired teams cannot play each other on the two days in question. This is treated as a hard constraint. It is this constraint that causes a problem. If we allow Liverpool and Everton (for example) to play each other, one set of supporters would only travel four miles. If these teams are paired (as they are) then they cannot play each other so the distances are likely to increase as either Liverpool or Everton would have to travel more than four miles. As pair clashes usually involve teams which are geographically close this gives rise to the conflicting objectives. In an initial study of the problem considered the 2003-2004 football season, suggesting that it may be possible to minimise both of these competing objectives but still produce results which are acceptable to both the supporters (who are interested in minimising the amount they travel) and the police (who are interested in having fewer pair clashes). In this chapter, we carry out a more in depth study by considering more seasons and carrying out statistical analysis of the results in order to draw stronger conclusions.},
booktitle = {Meta-heuristics: Progress as Real Problem Solvers, Selected Papers from the 5th Metaheuristics International Conference (MIC 2003)},
doi = {10.1007/978-3-642-30671-6_14},
keywords = {multi-objective, sport, scheduling, hybrid},
owner = {gxk},
timestamp = {2007.03.29},
webpdf = {http://www.graham-kendall.com/papers/kmcmw2013.pdf} }