Graham Kendall
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Professor Graham Kendall

Professor Graham Kendall is the Provost and CEO of The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus (UNMC). He is also a Pro-Vice Chancellor of the University of Nottingham.

He is a Director of MyResearch Sdn Bhd, Crops for the Future Sdn Bhd. and Nottingham Green Technologies Sdn Bhd. He is a Fellow of the British Computer Society (FBCS) and a Fellow of the Operational Research Society (FORS).

He has published over 230 peer reviewed papers. He is an Associate Editor of 10 journals and the Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Transactions of Computational Intelligence and AI in Games.

News

Does AI have a place in the board room?
http://bit.ly/1DXreuW
How to teach Deep Blue to play poker and deliver groceries
http://bit.ly/1DXGeZD

Latest Blog Post

Snooker: Celebrating 40 years at the Crucible

Random Blog Post

Sports Forecasting: A Comparison of the Forecast Accuracy of Prediction Markets, Betting Odds and Tipsters

Publication(s)

A Simulated Annealing Hyper-heuristic Methodology for Flexible Decision Support
http://bit.ly/1a34rQJ
The importance of a piece difference feature to Blondie24
http://bit.ly/1a2Ns0W
Solving a Practical Examination Timetabling Problem: A Case Study
http://bit.ly/gnJ9XG
Evolving Tiles for Automated Self-Assembly Design
http://bit.ly/dInbHL

Graham Kendall: Details of Requested Publication


Citation

Li, J and Kendall, G The effect of memory size on the evolutionary stability of strategies in iterated prisoner's dilemma. IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation, 18 (6): 819-826, 2014.

ISSN: 1089-778X


Abstract

The iterated prisoner's dilemma is an ideal model for the evolution of cooperation among payoff-maximizing individuals. It has attracted wide interest in the development of novel strategies since the success of tit-for-tat in Axelrod's iterated prisoner's dilemma competitions. Every strategy for iterated prisoner's dilemma utilizes a certain length of historical interactions with the opponent, which is regarded as the size of the memory, in making its choices. Intuitively, longer memory strategies must have an advantage over shorter memory strategies. In practice, however, most of the well known strategies are short memory strategies that utilize only the recent history of previous interactions. In this paper, the effect of the memory size of strategies on their evolutionary stability in both infinite length and indefinite length $n$ -person iterated prisoner's dilemma is studied. Based on the concept of a counter strategy, we develop a theoretical methodology for evaluating the evolutionary stability of strategies and prove that longer memory strategies outperform shorter memory strategies statistically in the sense of evolutionary stability. We also give an example of a memory-two strategy to show how the theoretical study of evolutionary stability assists in developing novel strategies.


pdf

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doi

The doi for this publication is 10.1109/TEVC.2013.2286492 You can link directly to the original paper, via the doi, from here

What is a doi?: A doi (Document Object Identifier) is a unique identifier for sicientific papers (and occasionally other material). This provides direct access to the location where the original article is published using the URL http://dx.doi/org/xxxx (replacing xxx with the doi). See http://dx.doi.org/ for more information


Journal Rankings


ISI Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports

The Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports (often known as ISI Impact Factors) help measure how often an article is cited. You can get an introduction to Journal Citation Reports here. Below I have provided the ISI impact factor for the jourrnal in which this article was published. For complete information I have shown the ISI ranking over a number of years, with the latest ranking highlighted.

2014 (3.654), 2013 (5.545), 2012 (4.810), 2011 (3.341), 2010 (4.403), 2009 (4.589), 2008 (3.736), 2007 (2.426), 2006 (3.770), 2005 (3.257), 2004 (3.688), 2003 (2.713), 2002 (1.486), 2001 (1.708)

URL

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The URL is only provided if there is additional information that might be useful. For example, where the entry is a book chapter, the URL might link to the book itself.


Bibtex

@ARTICLE{lk2014, author = {J. Li and G. Kendall},
title = {The effect of memory size on the evolutionary stability of strategies in iterated prisoner's dilemma},
journal = {IEEE Transactions on Evolutionary Computation},
year = {2014},
volume = {18},
pages = {819--826},
number = {6},
note = {ISSN: 1089-778X},
abstract = {The iterated prisoner's dilemma is an ideal model for the evolution of cooperation among payoff-maximizing individuals. It has attracted wide interest in the development of novel strategies since the success of tit-for-tat in Axelrod's iterated prisoner's dilemma competitions. Every strategy for iterated prisoner's dilemma utilizes a certain length of historical interactions with the opponent, which is regarded as the size of the memory, in making its choices. Intuitively, longer memory strategies must have an advantage over shorter memory strategies. In practice, however, most of the well known strategies are short memory strategies that utilize only the recent history of previous interactions. In this paper, the effect of the memory size of strategies on their evolutionary stability in both infinite length and indefinite length ${n}$ -person iterated prisoner's dilemma is studied. Based on the concept of a counter strategy, we develop a theoretical methodology for evaluating the evolutionary stability of strategies and prove that longer memory strategies outperform shorter memory strategies statistically in the sense of evolutionary stability. We also give an example of a memory-two strategy to show how the theoretical study of evolutionary stability assists in developing novel strategies.},
doi = {10.1109/TEVC.2013.2286492},
issn = {1089-778X},
keywords = {Prisoner's Dilemma, IPD, ESS, Evolutionary Stable Strategy},
owner = {gxk},
timestamp = {2011.06.11},
webpdf = {http://www.graham-kendall.com/papers/lk2014.pdf} }