Graham Kendall
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Professor Graham Kendall

Professor Graham Kendall is the Provost and CEO of The University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus (UNMC). He is also a Pro-Vice Chancellor of the University of Nottingham.

He is a Director of MyResearch Sdn Bhd, Crops for the Future Sdn Bhd. and Nottingham Green Technologies Sdn Bhd. He is a Fellow of the British Computer Society (FBCS) and a Fellow of the Operational Research Society (FORS).

He has published over 230 peer reviewed papers. He is an Associate Editor of 10 journals and the Editor-in-Chief of the IEEE Transactions of Computational Intelligence and AI in Games.

News

I am a member of the Automated Scheduling, Optimisation and Planning Research Group
http://bit.ly/eIQ5XC
The hunt for MH370
http://bit.ly/1DXRLbu

Latest Blog Post

Snooker: Celebrating 40 years at the Crucible

Random Blog Post

Vehicle Routing: VeRoLog Solver Challenge 2014

Publication(s)

Does money matter in inflation forecasting?
http://bit.ly/fRebpX
A New Placement Heuristic for the Orthogonal Stock-Cutting Problem
http://bit.ly/gJdaAs
An efficient and robust approach to generate high quality solutions for the Traveling Tournament Problem.
http://bit.ly/fCqNU6
Chapter 1: Introduction
http://bit.ly/1goQv51

Graham Kendall: Details of Requested Publication


Citation

Philips, T; Li, J and Kendall, G The Effects of Extra-Somatic Weapons on the Evolution of Human Cooperation towards Non-Kin. PLoS ONE, 9 (5): e95742, 2014.

ISSN: 1932-6203


Abstract

Human cooperation and altruism towards non-kin is a major evolutionary puzzle, as is ‘strong reciprocity’ where no present or future rewards accrue to the co-operator/altruist. Here, we test the hypothesis that the development of extra-somatic weapons could have influenced the evolution of human cooperative behaviour, thus providing a new explanation for these two puzzles. Widespread weapons use could have made disputes within hominin groups far more lethal and also equalized power between individuals. In such a cultural niche non-cooperators might well have become involved in such lethal disputes at a higher frequency than cooperators, thereby increasing the relative fitness of genes associated with cooperative behaviour. We employ two versions of the evolutionary Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma (IPD) model – one where weapons use is simulated and one where it is not. We then measured the performance of 25 IPD strategies to evaluate the effects of weapons use on them. We found that cooperative strategies performed significantly better, and non-cooperative strategies significantly worse, under simulated weapons use. Importantly, the performance of an ‘Always Cooperate’ IPD strategy, equivalent to that of ‘strong reciprocity’, improved significantly more than that of all other cooperative strategies. We conclude that the development of extra-somatic weapons throws new light on the evolution of human altruistic and cooperative behaviour, and particularly ‘strong reciprocity’. The notion that distinctively human altruism and cooperation could have been an adaptive trait in a past environment that is no longer evident in the modern world provides a novel addition to theory that seeks to account for this major evolutionary puzzle.


pdf

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doi

The doi for this publication is 10.1371/journal.pone.0095742 You can link directly to the original paper, via the doi, from here

What is a doi?: A doi (Document Object Identifier) is a unique identifier for sicientific papers (and occasionally other material). This provides direct access to the location where the original article is published using the URL http://dx.doi/org/xxxx (replacing xxx with the doi). See http://dx.doi.org/ for more information


Journal Rankings


ISI Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports

The Web of Knowledge Journal Citation Reports (often known as ISI Impact Factors) help measure how often an article is cited. You can get an introduction to Journal Citation Reports here. Below I have provided the ISI impact factor for the jourrnal in which this article was published. For complete information I have shown the ISI ranking over a number of years, with the latest ranking highlighted.

2014 (3.234), 2013 (3.534), 2012 (3.730), 2011 (4.092), 2010 (4.411), 2009 (4.351)

URL

This pubication does not have a URL associated with it.

The URL is only provided if there is additional information that might be useful. For example, where the entry is a book chapter, the URL might link to the book itself.


Bibtex

@ARTICLE{plk2014, author = {T. Philips and J. Li and G. Kendall},
title = {The Effects of Extra-Somatic Weapons on the Evolution of Human Cooperation towards Non-Kin},
journal = {PLoS ONE},
year = {2014},
volume = {9},
pages = {e95742},
number = {5},
note = {ISSN: 1932-6203},
abstract = {Human cooperation and altruism towards non-kin is a major evolutionary puzzle, as is ‘strong reciprocity’ where no present or future rewards accrue to the co-operator/altruist. Here, we test the hypothesis that the development of extra-somatic weapons could have influenced the evolution of human cooperative behaviour, thus providing a new explanation for these two puzzles. Widespread weapons use could have made disputes within hominin groups far more lethal and also equalized power between individuals. In such a cultural niche non-cooperators might well have become involved in such lethal disputes at a higher frequency than cooperators, thereby increasing the relative fitness of genes associated with cooperative behaviour. We employ two versions of the evolutionary Iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma (IPD) model – one where weapons use is simulated and one where it is not. We then measured the performance of 25 IPD strategies to evaluate the effects of weapons use on them. We found that cooperative strategies performed significantly better, and non-cooperative strategies significantly worse, under simulated weapons use. Importantly, the performance of an ‘Always Cooperate’ IPD strategy, equivalent to that of ‘strong reciprocity’, improved significantly more than that of all other cooperative strategies. We conclude that the development of extra-somatic weapons throws new light on the evolution of human altruistic and cooperative behaviour, and particularly ‘strong reciprocity’. The notion that distinctively human altruism and cooperation could have been an adaptive trait in a past environment that is no longer evident in the modern world provides a novel addition to theory that seeks to account for this major evolutionary puzzle.},
doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0095742},
issn = {1932-6203},
keywords = {evolution, cooperation, weapons},
owner = {gxk},
timestamp = {2011.06.11},
webpdf = {http://www.graham-kendall.com/papers/plk2014.pdf} }